Animal Nutrition:

What do you mean by Nutrients(organic and inorganic)?

Nutrients are the substances in food that provide for cell development, growth and repair.

Why are nutrients necessary for an organism?

Organisms require food for:

  • Providing energy for the vital and essential activities of the body.
  • Making new protoplasm for growth and repair of worn-out parts of the body and for reproduction.
  • Maintaining the health.

What are the types of Nutrients?

There are two types of nutrients:

  • Organic nutrients
  • Inorganic nutrients

What do you mean by organic and inorganic nutrients?



How does our body use these organic and inorganic  Nutrients?

Organic Nutrients:

  • Foods containing carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are usually too complex to be absorbed right away by the body. They are broken down into simpler molecules before the body can utilize them.
  • Biological molecules (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) are very large and hence called macromolecules. Most macromolecules are polymers. A polymer is a substance or material consisting of enormous molecules, or macromolecules, composed of many repeating subunits called monomers.
  • Macromolecules are made by the process termed condensation. Condensation is a type of reaction where two molecules react together to form a larger molecule, through the elimination of a smaller one.
  • Macromolecules are broken down by a process termed hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is a reaction in which chemical bonds are broken by the addition of water.

Inorganic Nutrients:

In contrast, minerals and water can be absorbed directly into your bloodstream. They do not require digestion or breakdown.

How will you define Diet in Biology? The food an animal eats every day is called diet. Most animals need seven types of nutrients in their diet: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, fibre, vitamins and minerals.

Define A Balanced diet? A diet is a balanced diet that contains all the primary nutrients in the
correct amounts and proportions to maintain good health. The amount of energy needed to carry on vital life processes of the body when it is incomplete rest is known as basal metabolism that can be affected by climate, body size, age, sex, health, occupation of an individual.

Organic and inorganic Nutrients are an essential part of our Balanced Diet:

Organic Nutrients:

 What are Carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates are probably the most common and well-known organic substances in nature, and they are essential components of all the living things. Carbohydrates are manufactured in green plants with the help of carbon dioxide and water by the process of photosynthesis. Carbohydrates serve as a quick or rapid energy source and as essential structural components in all the living organisms. For example, it also makes an integral part of the structure of nucleic acids, which contain genetic information, consists of carbohydrate.

  • Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
  • A general formula for carbohydrate is Cx (H2O) y. E.g., glucose is (CH2O)6, which can be written as C6H12O6.

What are the different types and sources of Carbohydrates?


What do you know about Protein?

Amino acid is building block molecule of a protein. It contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen and sometimes sulphur and phosphorus are also present.

Polymers of amino acids are called polypeptides. A molecule of Protein consists of one or more polypeptides that are folded and coiled.



And Polypeptide chains are polymers that are formed when amino acid monomers are linked by peptide bonds. Peptide bonds are formed by a condensation reaction. A Polypeptide chain ranges in length from a few monomers to more than a thousand.


What can Protein do?

  • Protein is important and essential in the maintenance of body tissue, including development and repair.
  • Protein is the major source of energy.
  • Protein also plays an important role is in the creation of some hormones, help to control the body functions.
  • Protein produces enzymes that increase the rate of chemical reactions in the body.
  • It also gives structural support to somebody organs, e.g. Silk of insects and spiders, collagen in the skin, keratin in hair and nails.
  • Proteins also make Haemoglobin which is a transporting agent.
  • It also makes the defensive system of the body like antibodies.

Why are the different shapes of Proteins present in our body?

  • Protein shape is stabilized by many weak bonds.
  • The specific 3-D shape of the Protein is mainly held by these weak bonds.
  • It contains Hydrogen bonds, which are easily broken by heat, acids and alkalis.
  • The breaking of these cross-links causes the denaturation of the Protein.
  • A protein’s shape is determined by the order that amino acids are joined in.
  • The shape of a protein determines its function—for example, Haemoglobin, antibody, enzyme etc.



  • A  lipid molecule is made up of many fatty acids and Glycerol. At the same time, Glycerol is an alcohol containing three hydroxyl groups (OH).
  • Although carbohydrates are a quick and resource of instant energy. This energy obtained from lipids is greater than the energy obtained from the same amount of carbohydrates molecules. However, the body does not automatically get this energy from the stored fat. This only happens when there is the absence of carbohydrates.

What are the different functions of Lipids?

  • Lipids make the composition of a living cell that is 5% of the organic material.
  • Lipids also play an important role in making the construction of Cell Membrane.
  • Lipids also work as a thermal insulator in animals and humans, which means that organisms can maintain their natural temperatures in cold regions and harsh environments.
  • Lipids can also work as a protective cover for the surfaces of several plants and animals, and some of them can work as hormones.
  • Significant groups of lipids are fats, phospholipids and steroids.

What is a Fat?

  • Fats may be saturated or unsaturated.
  • Saturated Fat:
    • Usually a solid at room temperature
    • Most animal fats: Bacon grease, lard and butter
    • Fatty acid chains are straight
  • Unsaturated Fat:
    • Vegetable fats
    • Do not cause heart diseases
    • Have kinks in the fatty acid chains

What are the Functions of fat?

  • Fat is an efficient source and storage of energy.
  • More solid energy reservoir as compared to carbohydrates.
  • It cushions vital organs in mammals.
  • Fats insulates against heat loss.
  • Reduce water loss – glands in the skin secrete oily substances.
  • It acts as a solvent for fat-soluble vitamins and many other vital hormones.
  • It is a constituent of protoplasm, especially in the protoplasmic membranes.


  • Vitamins are required in small quantities for normal health and development
  • There are two types
    • Fat-soluble vitamins: can be stored in the fats of the body
    • Water-soluble vitamins: cannot be stored in the body, and have to be supplied in the daily diet

What are the primary sources and functions of Vitamin C and D?

Describe the symptoms resulting from the deficiency of Vitamin C and D?


Why are the Inorganic Nutrients(water and minerals) important for living organisms?

inorganic nutrients sources functions deficiency
  • Juices
  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  •  It helps in the correct formation of blood and cytoplasm.
  •  It helps many chemical reactions to take place proving the aqueous media.
  •  It also acts as a solvent so help to transport (blood)many important substances around the body and removal of many waste products(urine)
  •  Enzymes also work only the best in aqueous media.
  • Deficiency causes Dehydration in the body.
  • Liver
  • Red meat
  • Kidney beans
  • Eggs
  • Kidney
  • Dried fruits(like apricot)
  • Chickpeas
  • Green leafy vegetable(spinach,cabbage)
  • Help in the formation of Haemoglobin that is present in RBCs
 Deficiency causes

Anaemia :

  • because of its deficiency, there will be fewer RBCs that will cause less availability of oxygen. So less amount of oxygen reaches till cells and tissues.
  •  Constant tiredness:
  • laziness occurs and remains a deficient level of energy.


  • Milk(all dairy foods)
  • Fish
  • Cheese
  • Kale
  • Okra
  • Spinach
·  It helps in the formation of :

  •  Healthy teeth
  • Healthy bones
  • Normal blood clotting.
  •  Rickets
  •  Brittle bones and teeth
  •   Slow blood clotting
  •  Hypocalcemia


How is fiber/roughage essential for living organisms?

nutrient sources function deficiency
roughage/fiber/fibrous food
  • All vegetables
  • All fruits
  • Unrefined cereals
  • Wholemeal flour
  • Nuts
  • Pulses
  • Seeds
  • Cellulose present in fiber that is indigestible so increase the mass and soften the bowel.
  • Maintain the peristalsis movement so help in the passage of food and waste products through the gut.
  • Deficiency causes constipation.
  • And it long term constipation persists then in result bowel cancer occurs.